Topologically Nontrivial Valley States in Bilayer Graphene Quantum Point Contacts

Overweg, H.; Knothe, A.; Fabian, T.; Linhart, L.; Rickhaus, P; Wernli, L; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Sánchez, D.; Burgdörfer, J.; Libisch, F.; Fal'ko, V. I.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.
Physical Review Letters 121, 257702 (1-6) (2018)

We present measurements of quantized conductance in electrostatically induced quantum point contacts in bilayer graphene. The application of a perpendicular magnetic field leads to an intricate pattern of lifted and restored degeneracies with increasing field: at zero magnetic field the degeneracy of quantized one-dimensional subbands is four, because of a twofold spin and a twofold valley degeneracy. By switching on the magnetic field, the valley degeneracy is lifted. Because of the Berry curvature, states from different valleys split linearly in magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime fourfold degenerate conductance plateaus reemerge. During the adiabatic transition to the quantum Hall regime, levels from one valley shift by two in quantum number with respect to the other valley, forming an interweaving pattern that can be reproduced by numerical calculations.

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