How Diet and Lifestyle Can Fine-Tune Gut Microbiomes for Healthy Aging

Tamayo, M.; M. Olivares, M.; Ruas-Madiedo, P.; Margolles, A.; Espín, J. C.; Medina, I.; Moreno-Arribas, M. V.; Canals, S.. ; Mirasso, C. R.; Ortín, S.; Beltrán-Sánchez, H.; Palloni, A.; Tomás-Barberán, F.; Sanz, Y.
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology 15, 283–305 (2024)

Many physical, social, and psychological changes occur during aging that raise the risk of developing chronic diseases, frailty, and dependency. These changes adversely affect the gut microbiota, a phenomenon known as microbe-aging. Those microbiota alterations are, in turn, associated with the development of age-related diseases. The gut microbiota is highly responsive to lifestyle and dietary changes, displaying flexibility that also provides an actionable tool by which healthy aging can be promoted. This review covers, firstly, the main lifestyle and socioeconomic factors that modify the gut microbiota composition and function during healthy or unhealthy aging and, secondly, the advances being made in defining and promoting healthy aging, including microbiome-informed artificial intelligence tools, personalized dietary patterns, and food probiotic systems.

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