Geometry effects in topologically confined bilayer graphene loops

Benchtaber, N.; Sánchez, D.; Serra, L.
New Journal of Physics 24, 013001 (1-11) (2021)

We investigate the electronic confinement in bilayer graphene by topological loops of different shapes. These loops are created by lateral gates acting via gap inversion on the two graphene sheets. For large-area loops the spectrum is well described by a quantization rule depending only on the loop perimeter. For small sizes, the spectrum depends on the loop shape. We find that zero-energy states exhibit a characteristic pattern that strongly depends on the spatial symmetry. We show this by considering loops of higher to lower symmetry (circle, square, rectangle and irregular polygon). Interestingly, magnetic field causes valley splittings of the states, an asymmetry between energy reversal states, flux periodicities and the emergence of persistent currents.

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