Reconfigurable optical implementation of quantum complex networks
Nokkala, Johannes; Arzani, Francesco; Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Piilo, Jyrki; Treps, Nicolas; Parigi, Valentina
New Journal of Physics 20, 053024 (2018)
Network theory has played a dominant role in understanding the structure of complex systems and their dynamics. Recently, quantum complex networks, i.e. collections of quantum systems in a non-regular topology, have been explored leading to significant progress in a multitude of diverse contexts including, e.g., quantum transport, open quantum systems, quantum communication, extreme violation of local realism, and quantum gravity geometries. However, the question on how to produce and control general quantum complex networks in experimental laboratory has remained open. Here we propose an all optical and reconfigurable implementation of quantum complex networks. The experimental proposal is based on optical frequency combs, parametric processes, pulse shaping and multimode measurements allowing the arbitrary control of the number of the nodes (optical modes) and topology of the links (interactions between the modes) within the network. Moreover, we also show how to simulate quantum dynamics within the network combined with the ability to address its individual nodes. To demonstrate the versatility of these features, we discuss the implementation of two recently proposed probing techniques for quantum complex networks and structured environments. Overall, our general method for implementing quantum complex networks with reconfigurable set-up has potential to define an experimental playground for designing and controlling complex networks -- and dynamics therein -- for several quantum physical frameworks.