Ordering dynamics in the voter model with aging
The voter model with memory-dependent dynamics is theoretically and numerically studied at the mean-field level. The ``internal age'', or time an individual spends holding the same state, is added to the set of binary states of the population, such that the probability of changing state (or activation probability $p_i$) depends on this age. A closed set of integro-differential equations describing the time evolution of the fraction of individuals with a given state and age is derived, and from it analytical results are obtained characterizing the behavior of the system close to the absorbing states. In general, different age-dependent activation probabilities have different effects on the dynamics. When the activation probability $p_i$ is an increasing function of the age $i$, the system reaches a steady state with coexistence of opinions. In the case of aging, with $p_i$ being a decreasing function, either the system reaches consensus or it gets trapped in a frozen state, depending on the value of $p_\infty$ (zero or not) and the velocity of $p_i$ approaching $p_\infty$. Moreover, when the system reaches consensus, the time ordering of the system can be exponential ($p_\infty>0$) or power-law like ($p_\infty=0$). Exact conditions for having one or another behavior, together with the equations and explicit expressions for the exponents, are provided.