Origin, bifurcation structure and stability of localized states in Kerr dispersive optical cavities
Parra-Rivas, Pedro; Knobloch, Edgar; Gelens, Lendert; Gomila, Damià
IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics 86, 856-895 (2021)
Localized coherent structures can form in externally driven dispersive optical cavities with a Kerr-type non-linearity. Such systems are described by the Lugiato–Lefever (LL) equation, which supports a large variety of dynamical states. Here, we review our current knowledge of the formation, stability and bifurcation structure of localized structures in the one-dimensional LL equation. We do so by focusing on two main regimes of operation: anomalous and normal second-order dispersion. In the anomalous regime, localized patterns are organized in a homoclinic snaking scenario, which is eventually destroyed, leading to a foliated snaking bifurcation structure. In the normal regime, localized structures undergo a different type of bifurcation structure, known as collapsed snaking. The effects of third-order dispersion and various dynamical regimes are also described.