Hubs-biased resistance distances on graphs and networks

Ernesto Estrada and Delio Mugnolo
Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 507, 125728 (1-22) (2022)

We define and study two new kinds of “effective resistances” based on hubs-biased – hubs-repelling and hubs-attracting – models of navigating a graph/network. We prove that these effective resistances are squared Euclidean distances between the vertices of a graph. They can be expressed in terms of the Moore–Penrose pseudoinverse of the hubs-biased Laplacian matrices of the graph. We define the analogous of the Kirchhoff indices of the graph based of these resistance distances. We prove several results for the new resistance distances and the Kirchhoff indices
based on spectral properties of the corresponding Laplacians. After an intensive computational search we conjecture that the Kirchhoff index based on the hubsrepelling resistance distance is not smaller than that based on the standard resistance distance, and that the last is not smaller than the one based on the hubs-attracting resistance distance. We also observe that in real-world brain and neural systems the efficiency of standard random walk processes is as high as that of hubs-attracting schemes. On the contrary, infrastructures and modular software
networks seem to be designed to be navigated by using their hubs.

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