The world surrounding us, including all living matter and various artificial complex systems, mostly operates far from thermal equilibrium. Recently, lively effort is dedicated in the fields of stochastic thermodynamics and statistical physics to unravel the fundamental principles that govern the individual and collective dynamics of such nonequilibrium systems, like the swarming of fish or flocking of birds. However, so far, little attention has been paid to the implications of non-conservative interactions, like time-delayed or non-reciprocal interactions. Such interactions emerge commonly in biological, chemical and feedback systems, and are widespread in engineering and machine learning. In this talk, I will use simple models to discuss technical challenges and unexpected physical phenomena induced by non-reciprocity  and time delay .
 Loos, Klapp, NJP (2020)
 Loos, Klapp, Sci. Rep. (2019); Holubec, Geiss, Loos, Kroy, Cichos, PRL (2021)
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