Global predictions for the risk of establishment of Pierce's disease of grapevines

Àlex Giménez-Romero1, Javier Galván1, Marina Montesinos2, Joan Bauzà3, Martin Godefroid4, Alberto Fereres4, José J. Ramasco1, Manuel A. Matías1, and Eduardo Moralejo2

1Instituto de Física Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos IFISC (CSIC-UIB), 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
2Tragsa, Passatge Cala Figuera 6, 07009 Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
3Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Campus UIB, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
4Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, ICA-CSIC, 28006 Madrid, Spain

(Dec 2022)

The vector-borne bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is responsible for Pierce's disease (PD), a lethal grapevine disease that originated in the Americas. The international plant trade is expanding the geographic range of this pathogen, posing a new threat to viticulture worldwide. To assess the potential incidence of PD, we have built a dynamic epidemiological model based on the response of 36 grapevine varieties to the pathogen in inoculation assays and on the vectors' distribution when this information is available. Key temperature-driven epidemiological processes, such as PD symptom development and recovery, are mechanistically modelled. Integrating into the model high-resolution spatiotemporal climatic data from 1981 onward and different infectivity (R0) scenarios, we show how the main wine-producing areas thrive mostly in non-risk, transient, or epidemic-risk zones with potentially low growth rates in PD incidence. Epidemic-risk zones with moderate to high growth rates are currently marginal outside the US. However, a global expansion of epidemic-risk zones coupled with small increments in the disease growth rate is projected for 2050. Our study globally downscales the risk of PD establishment while highlighting the importance of considering climate variability, vector distribution, and an invasive criterion as factors to obtain better PD risk maps.