Joint effect of ageing and multilayer structure prevents ordering in the voter model

Oriol Artime1, Juan Fernández-Gracia1, José J. Ramasco1 and Maxi San Miguel1

1Instituto de Física Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos IFISC (CSIC-UIB), 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

(August 2017)

The voter model rules are simple, with agents copying the state of a random neighbor, but they lead to non-trivial dynamics. Besides opinion processes, the model has also applications for catalysis and species competition. Inspired by the temporal inhomogeneities found in human interactions, one can introduce ageing in the agents: the probability to update their state decreases with the time elapsed since the last change. This modified dynamics induces an approach to consensus via coarsening in single-layer complex networks. In this work, we investigate how a multilayer structure affects the dynamics of the ageing voter model. The system is studied as a function of the fraction of nodes sharing states across layers (multiplexity parameter q). We find that the dynamics of the system suffers a notable change at an intermediate value q*. Above it, the voter model always orders to an absorbing configuration. While below it a fraction of the realizations falls into dynamical traps associated to a spontaneous symmetry breaking. In this latter case, the majority opinion in the different layers takes opposite signs and the arrival at the absorbing state is indefinitely delayed due to ageing.