Resilience and performance of the power grid with high penetration of renewable energy sources: the Balearic Islands as a case study
Carreras, Benjamin A.; Colet, Pere; Reynolds-Barredo, José M.; Gomila, Damià
We analyze the dynamics of the power grid with a high penetration of renewable energy sources using the ORNL-PSERC-Alaska (OPA) model. In particular we consider the power grid of the Balearic Islands with a high share of solar photovoltaic power as a case study. Day-to-day fluctuations of the solar generation and the use of storage are included in the model. Resilience is analyzed through the blackout distribution and performance is measured as the average fraction of the demand covered by solar power generation. We find that with the present consumption patterns and moderate storage, solar generation can replace conventional power plants without compromising reliability up to 30% of the total installed capacity. We also find that using source redundancy it is possible to cover up to 80% or more of the demand with solar plants, while keeping the risk similar to that with full conventional generation. However this requires oversizing the installed solar power to be at least 2.5 larger than the average demand. The potential of wind energy is also briefly discussed.